Internet of Things in a Nutshell

IoT is a comprises of “things” that have unique identities and are connected to the Internet.

Characteristics of an IoT Device

  • Dynamic
  • Self – Adapting
  • Self – Configuring
  • Interoperable Communication Protocols
  • Unique Identity
  • Integrated into Information Technology


IoT Protocols

Link Layer

  • 802.3 Ethernet
  • 802.11 Wifi ( Wireless Fidelity )
  • 802.16 WiMax ( Worldwide Microwave Access )
  • 802.15.4 LR-WPAN ( Low Rate Wireless Personal Area Network )
  • 2G/3G/LTE Cellular Communication

Network Layer

  • IPv4 / IPv6 ( Internet Protocol Version 4 / 6 )
  • 6LoWPAN ( Low Power Wireless Personal Area Network )

Transport Layer

  • TCP ( Transmission Control Protocol )
  • UDP ( User Datagram Protocol )

Application Layer

  • HTTP ( Hyper Text Transfer Protocol )
  • CoAP ( Constrained Application Protocol )
  • WebSockets
  • MQTT ( Message Queue Telemetry Transport )
  • XMPP ( Extensive Messaging and Presence Protocol )
  • DDS ( Data Distribution Service )
  • AMQP ( Advanced Message Queuing Protocol )


An IoT System comprises of a number of Functional Blocks that provide the system the capabilites of identification, sensoring and management. IoT Functional Blocks consists of Device, Communication, Services, Management, Security, and Application.

IoT Communication Models

  • Request – Response Model
  • Publish-Subscribe Model
  • Push-Pull Model
  • Exclusive Pair Model


IoT Systems

IoT Systems comprises of the following Components:

Device: Has Identification, Remote Sensing, Actuating and Remote Monitoring Capabilities

Resources: Software Components Accessing, Processing and Storing Sensor Information Controlling actuators connected to the Device

Controller Service: Service running on the Local Device Interacts with the Web Service Send Data from Device to the WebServers and Receive Commands from Applications for controlling Devices

Databases: Either Local or in the Cloud Stores the Data generated in the IoT Device

Web Services: Link b/w Device, Application, Database and Analysis Component. Can be implemented by HTTP and REST Principles OR WebSocket Protocol

Analysis Component: Analyze the IoT Data Generate Results in a form easy for the user to understand. Can be analyzed locally or in the Cloud and stored thereafter in Local or cloud databases

Application: User Interface which Control and Monitor various aspects of an IoT device User can view system status and processed data

IoT Levels

Level 1

new doc 2017-11-12 13.55.30_1.jpg

  • Single Device for sensing –> Stores Data –> Performs Analysis –> Hosts the app
  • Used to Low Cost and Low Complexity Solutions
  • Less Data Involved
  • Example: Home Automation

Level 2


  • Single Device
  • Local Analysis Data stored in Cloud Application is Cloud-based
  • Suitable for solutions where the data involved is Big but not computationally intensive, hence analysis was done Locally
  • Example: Smart Irrigation

Level 3

  • Single Node
  • Data stored and analyzed in the Cloud Application is cloud-based
  • Suitable for Devices where data is big and computation is intensive
  • Example: Tracking Package Handling Device monitors vibration levels of the package being shipped
  • Sends sensor data to Cloud through WebSocket Service Data stored and visualized in Cloud and analysis component can trigger alerts if vibration levels cross a threshold

Level 4


  • Multiple Nodes that perform local analysis
  • Data is stored in Cloud and application is Cloud-based Local and Cloud-based observer nodes that can subscribe to and receive information collected in the Cloud from IoT devices
  • Observer nodes can collect information and use it but can’t control other nodes
  • Suitable for systems which require multiple Nodes, and data is Big and Computationally is intensive
  • Example: Noise Monitoring

Level 5

  • Multiple End Nodes: perform sensing and Actuation
  • One coordinator Node: Collects data from End Nodes and sends to Cloud
  • Data stored and analyzed in Cloud
  • Suitable for Solutions based on Wireless Sensor Networks, in which data is big and analysis is intensive
  • Example: Forest Fire Detection

Level 6

new doc 2017-11-12 14.00.15_1.jpg

  • Multiple End Nodes: performs sensing and actuation and sends information to Cloud
  • Data stored in Cloud and application is Cloud-based Analyzed information is stored in Cloud and results are visualized
  • Centralized Controller is aware of status of all end Nodes and sends control commands to the nodes
  • Example: Weather Monitoring


Thanxx for reading. Stay Tuned for more such posts 🙂

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